The Haitian Revolution 1791 1804 transformed the French Caribbean slave colony of Saint Domingue into the independent black led nation of Haiti The Revolution began on August 1791, on Saint Domingues northern plain, with a massive slave rebellion The enslaved rebels burned sugar plantations and forced whites to take refuge in the city of Le Cap Cap Haitien.Unable to defeat the black rebels, the French Republic eventually abolished slavery and formed an alliance with the ex slave general Toussaint Louverture Louverture would become the savior of the French Republic in Saint Domingue, defeating the British, Spanish, and French royalists in the colony.He went on to become Governor General of Saint Domingue, but his reign was short lived In 1802 Napoleon Bonaparte sent an expeditionary force under his brother in law, Charles Leclerc, to depose Louverture and restore slavery in the French colonies Louverture and his loyal lieutenants, Jean Jacques Dessalines and Henri Christophe, resisted the French invaders, but surrendered after a few months Louverture was arrested and deported to Europe, where he died soon afterward, imprisoned.Even with Louverture gone, armed resistance to the French continued Dessalines and Christophe, who had initially agreed to fight for Leclerc, eventually defected back to the insurgent army Dessalines was appointed commander in chief by the rebels.The insurgency and defections of black troops grew as rumors that the French planned to re establish slavery spread These rumors were fuelled by news from Guadeloupe In that other French Caribbean colony, a man of color named Louis Delgrs or Delgresse put up determined resistance to Napoleons armies, committing suicide by blowing himself rather than surrendering The captured followers of Delgrs, deported to Saint Domingue, helped to spread rumors that the French had already re established slavery in Guadeloupe.In Saint Domingue, the insurgency grew, as blacks and people of color flocked to the rebel banner and defected from the French army Dessalines presided over the final defeat of the French army under Leclercs successor, the vicomte de Rochambeau, at Vertires in November 1803.In the last months of the war, the conflict took on an increasingly brutal character Leclerc began to suspect all of his black and mixed race soldiers and officers of disloyalty, and had them all arrested and executed Leclerc went on to suggest that most of the colonys black population would have to be wiped out and replaced with new African imports in order to restore slavery.After Leclerc died towards the end of 1802, his successor, Rochambeau, carried out even sadistic massacres against the colonys blacks and people of color This violence helped to unite the colonys mixed and black population against the French.After the French defeat, Dessalines declared independence on 1 January 1804 In the months that followed, Dessalines carried out a series of notorious massacres of the countrys remaining whites In his proclamations, he justified these killings by accusing the whites of complicity in the earlier massacres carried out by Leclerc and Rochambeau, and arguing that the whites could support French attempts to reconquer Haiti The massacres were also an attempt to unite the nations mixed race and black populations.The main target of these massacres were French colonists, especially men Foreign non French white merchants, such as Americans and Britons, were sparred Some European soldiers who had defected to rebels during the war, as well as a few white widows under Dessalines protection, were also exempted from the killings....
|Title||:||Liberty or Death: The Post-Independence Proclamations and Massacres of Haiti’s Dessalines|
|Number of Pages||:||13 pages|
|File Size||:||548 KB|
|Status||:||Available For Download|
|Last checked||:||21 Minutes ago!|